With the knowledge gained from my old post about the Internal Combustion Engine, you can apply the mechanics of that to a new idea: Forced Induction or boost. There are 3 types of boost: Turbo-supercharging, Supercharging, and Nitrous Oxide/N2O/NOS. Shown above is Turbo-supercharging or just Turbocharging. It uses exhaust gases to spin a turbine which is attached by a shaft to a compressor wheel. As the turbine spins so does the compressor wheel sucking in more air then the engine could do on its own. With a higher concentration of oxygen to burn per volume then non-compressed air, there is much more energy that can be created within the cylinder, where volume does not change. You also see on the induction/intake side of the engine a Charger Intercooler. While not necessary, its benefits are great so it is common to find them in a Turbocharged system. An intercooler is a kind-of air radiator. If the air is kept cold it remains dense, the denser the air, the more air per volume.
Not shown: there are two special valves crucial in the functioning or a Turbocharged system 1 on the intake side, 1 on the exhaust side.
A. Waste gate. found on the exhaust side of the system, it regulates how much pressure is on the exhaust side of the turbo, therefor controlling how much boost is actually created. This valve is how a tuner adjust the boost created by the turbo. (boost is measured in Psi.)
B. Blow-off valve. This valve found on the intake side of the system releases pressure within the intake so it does not blow up the intake plumbing. (pipes) When the engine is accelerating the cylinder is sucking in A LOT of air. When the driver lets off of the throttle, the turbo is still creating that pressure for a split second. To save the systems intake from blowing apart, the blow-off valve opens once it detects a great rise in pressure within the intake.
Benefits of Turbocharging: tremendous gains in power, more efficient then a supercharger because it does not draw from the engines power. It uses exhaust to create boost rather then just wasting that hot pressurized air. Typically can create greater amounts of boost then supercharging and that boost is adjustable unlike supercharging.
Drawbacks of Turbocharging: constant boost in impossible from a Turbocharger. Boost comes in late in the engines Rpms to create greater power then a naturally aspirated (n/a) engine. Supercharging’s boost is constant and exponential. Turbocharging creates a lot of heat within the engine. Using a turbo consumes more gasoline. A turbocharged engines lifespan is shorter then a n/a engine because of the greater stress all the parts must endure.